An image of the LINKSCH project title, which is 'Grasping the chains in the link: Understanding the unintended consequences of international counter-narcotics measures for the EU'.

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Project Announcement

Global Heroin Flows of Asian Origin

A schematic map identifying global heroin flows of Asian origin.

Heroin trafficking routes from Asia, showing quantities in metric tons.
Credit: UNODC World Drug Report 2010

Northern and Balkan Heroin Trafficking Routes

A schematic map identifying Northern and Balkan heroin flows.

Heroin trafficking routes from Afghanistan through Northern and Balkan regions, showing quantities in metric tons
and main areas of consumption.
Credit: UNODC World Drug Report 2010

Transit Chains In Central Asia

A schematic map identifying different drug transit chains in Central Asia.

Drug trafficking routes in Central Asia.
Credit: Central Intelligence Agency, www.cia.gov, 1998

Global Transit Chains

A schematic map identifying global drug transit chains between continents.

Drug trafficking routes between continents.
Credit: Central Intelligence Agency, www.cia.gov, 2000

Opium Poppy Cultivation

A schematic chart illustrating the illicit cultivation of the opium poppy in hectares in the major producer countries world-wide, which identifies Afghanistan as by far the largest producer.

Relative illicit cultivation of the opium poppy world-wide as measured by area under cultivation per country. Note that these figures are for 2010, which is the most recent annual report for all countries. Global cultivation was estimated at 190,662 hectares whilst cultivation in Afghanistan was estimated at 123,000 hectares.
Credit: UNODC World Drug Report 2012

Cannabis Resin Production

A schematic chart illustrating the main source countries of cannabis herb world-wide for the year 2010, which identifies Morocco and Afghanistan as the largest producers as indicated by the source country identified during seizures of cannabis resin.

Relative illicit production of cannabis resin world-wide as estimated by the number of times each country was identified as the source by other countries in which seizures of illicit cannabis resin took place. Note that these figures are for 2010, which is the most recent annual report for all countries. The figures are presented as an approximation only since comparative figures for area under cultivation and for production levels are unavailable.
Credit: UNODC World Drug Report 2012

Annual Trends In Cannabis Resin Production

A schematic chart illustrating annual trends in production between 2002 and 2010 for the main source countries of cannabis resin world-wide as indicated by the source country identified during seizures of cannabis resin.

Relative illicit production of cannabis resin world-wide over the period 2002-2010 as estimated by the number of times each country was identified as the source by other countries in which seizures of illicit cannabis resin took place. The figures are presented as an approximation only since comparative figures for area under cultivation and for production levels are unavailable.
Credit: UNODC World Drug Report 2012

  • University of Glasgow logo for use in navigating to the university's homepage
  • Logo for CNRS, the French national research centre in Paris, for use in navigating to the research centre's French-language homepage
  • University of Coventry logo for use in navigating to the university's homepage
  • University of Coventry Business School logo for use in navigating to the school's homepage
  • University of Potsdam logo for use in navigating to the university's German-language homepage
  • Logo for SOAS, the School of African and Oriental Studies at the University of London, for use in navigating to the school's homepage
  • Logo for Visible Hand Research, for information only and not for use in navigating to the consultancy's homepage since no website is currently available

This project has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 285073.

Flag of the European Union.